Astropulse: A Fresh Look at the Skies in Search of E.T.
A SETI@home Update by Amir Alexander
August 27, 2008
I. How Aliens Think
An artist’s depiction of a distant planet inhabited by an alien civilization
Credit: David A. Aguilar (CfA)
来源：David A. Aguilar (CfA)
If you were a member of an alien civilization trying to communicate across the immeasurable distances of space, how would you go about it? Not being an alien yourself it is hard to answer this question, but you can do your best: You would, most likely, send out radio signals, since they are extremely fast – traveling at the speed of light – have a very long range, and are relatively easy to transmit. Your radio transmission, furthermore, would probably be a narrow-band signal, to distinguish it from other transmissions in neighboring bands as well as naturally occurring noise. In other words, if you wanted to communicate across interstellar space you would almost certainly use the exact same technology that has worked so well for us in the much shorter distances of Earth: continuous narrow-band radio transmissions. Wouldn’t aliens do the same?
Perhaps they would. That, at least, is what most SETI researchers have assumed since the earliest days of the field half a century ago. As a result, the majority of SETI searches over the years have concentrated on finding precisely this kind of signal – a clear and crisp needle of a narrow-band transmission buried in the haystack of broadband cosmic noise. SETI@home itself is typical in this regard, devoting most of its enormous processing power to carving out the raw noise from Arecibo into thin bands of data where a narrow-band signal could be hiding.
可能他们也是这样想的，至少从这个领域开端到现在的大概半个世纪以来绝大多数 SETI 研究者都是这样假定的。所以多年来主流 SETI 搜索所瞄准的目标都是这些类型的信号——在宇宙射线噪音的乱糟糟的“干草堆”里边的一根由清晰干脆的窄频带无线电波组成的的“针”。SETI@home 本身就是这个观点的一个典型例子，它拥有的巨大运算能力几乎都投入到了在由阿雷西博望远镜搜集的原始噪声中分离出那些有可能埋藏着一个窄频带信号的一片片数据。
But then again, maybe they wouldn’t. Perhaps the aliens, for their own reasons, would choose to communicate using a very different type of signal. For example, instead of sending a continuous narrow-band transmission they might choose to send distinct broad-band pulses. These would stand out against the background noise not because they are precisely centered on a particular wavelength, but because they are very short and punctuated bursts of energy. Why would the aliens choose this method over our own? Who knows, after all we are not aliens and cannot begin to imagine the technological choices they face. The main thing is to acknowledge that such a form of communication is possible, and just as practicable as our familiar narrow-band radio transmissions. And if aliens could be sending out this type of signals, then it follows that SETI researchers should be on the lookout for them.
With this thought in mind, SETI@home Chief Scientist Dan Wethimer and his team have worked hard for several years to develop a new type of SETI@home with new capabilities. Like traditional SETI@home the new program uses the raw data collected during sky-surveys at Arecibo. As before, the data is carved up into work units and sent to users for processing, and users’ computers then send their results back to SETI@home headquarters in Berkeley. The difference is that this time, instead of looking for clear narrow-band transmissions, the software will search for extremely short broad-band bursts, or "pulses," coming from the stars. To distinguish it from traditional SETI@home, the team also gave the new project a distinct name: Astropulse.
怀着这种想法，SETI@home 的首席科学家 Dan Wethimer 和他带领的团队已经在一种新的更强大的 SETI@home 上努力工作了好几年了。与传统的 SETI@home 一样，新程序利用的也是阿雷西博射电望远镜巡天时得到的原始数据。与以前一样，这些数据会被划分成一个个工作单元然后分发给用户来进行处理，然后用户的电脑会将计算结果汇报到 SETI@home 在伯克利的总部。新程序和之前的程序的区别在于之前的程序寻找的是清晰的窄频带信号，而新程序寻找的是那些从遥远星球来的极短的宽频带上的能量爆发（也叫做“脉冲”）。为了把它和传统的 SETI@home 区分开来，它有一个新名字：Astropulse。
II. Reconstructing an Alien Signal
"Searching for a short broad-band signal is a completely different process than searching for a traditional narrow-band signal" explained Josh Von Korff, the SETI@home team member who was responsible for programming Astropulse. Traditional SETI@home looks at a radio band around the hydrogen line, between 1418.75 MHz and 1421.25 MHz, but the program does not examine the entire 2.5 MHz wide band all at once. Instead it slices the raw data into band segments as thin as 0.07 Hertz apiece in search of a narrow-band signal. The challenge is then to reconstruct the original signal by compensating for the Doppler drift caused by the relative motion of Earth and the originating planet. Since that motion is not known, the program runs through a gamut of different possibilities, trying out a wide range of different drift rates in search of an actual signal.
“对于短促的宽频带信号的搜寻与传统的对于窄频带信号的搜寻完全不一样。”SETI@home 团队中专门负责编写 Astropulse 的成员 Josh Von Korff 这样解释。传统的 SETI@home 观察的是在氢原子谱线附近从 1418.75 MHz 到 1421.25 MHz 那一片无线电频带，但是程序不会一下子把整段长 2.5 MHz 的频带一下子检查完毕，而是会将它分成可以细达 0.07 Hz 的薄片然后在其中搜寻窄带信号。这时候，挑战就在于通过运算抵消地球和信号来源相对运动引起的多普勒频移从而重建原始的信号。由于这种相对运动很难确定，程序会尝试跑遍各种可能情况，用大范围的多个不同频移率来尝试搜寻讯号。
The Astropulse program also looks at the same 2.5 MHz band around the hydrogen line, but it spends no time trying to compensate for Doppler drift. This is because Astropulse is looking for signals that would cover the entire bandwidth of 2.5 MHz – that is two and a half million Hertz – more than thirty million times broader than the finest traditional SETI@home band. Any Doppler drift in the signal would fall within this wide band anyway and will form part of the total signal. As a result, there is no need to compensate for the drift as is the case with a narrow-band signal.
Astropulse 程序观察的也是那条相同的 2.5 MHz 宽的在氢原子谱线旁边的频带，但它并不会对多普勒漂移进行任何抵消的工作。这是因为 Astropulse 搜寻的是那些能覆盖整个频带的信号——也就是总共 2.5 Mhz 的范围——比传统的 SETI@home 程序搜寻的最薄的频带要厚三千万倍。信号的任何多普勒频移无论如何都不会移出这个频带，而且也肯定会是整个信号的一个组成部分。这样的话，我们就不需要像对待窄频带信号那样去抵消频移了。
But although Astropulse does not need to concern itself with Doppler drift, it does have to worry about a different problem that does not arise in traditional SETI@home. This is the inconvenient fact that electromagnetic waves, including radio signals, travel at slightly different speeds through space, depending on their frequency. As we learned in school, radio signals all travel at the speed of light, but this is literally true only in an absolute vacuum. When traveling through a medium higher frequency waves travel ever so slightly faster than lower frequency ones. In light waves we know this effect well as refraction, the familiar effect where a beam of white light is divided into its component colors when passing through water or a prism. This is caused by the fact that the different colors, representing different wavelengths, pass through the medium at slightly different speeds.
但尽管 Astropulse 不需要关注多普勒频移，它必须面对另一个在传统的 SETI@home 中未曾出现过的问题，那就是不同频率的电磁波在太空中传播的速度是有一点不同的。我们在学校里边知道了无线电信号都是以光速行进的，但是这句话只有在完全的真空中才是完全正确的。在介质中传播的时候，高频率的电磁波会比低频率的稍微快一点，哪怕只是一点点。在光学里边这就是我们熟知的色散现象，也就是说白光通过棱镜或者水之后会分成七色光的原因。造成这种现象的原因就是因为不同颜色的光频率不同，所以通过介质的时候速度也有一点点分别。
At first glance it would seem that this phenomenon would hardly affect alien transmissions through space. Light might be affected by water or prisms, but isn’t interstellar space emptiness itself? As it happens, the answer is no. When compared with our dense Earth environment, interstellar space certainly appears empty, but is in fact far from a true vacuum. It is mostly filled with varying concentrations of free-floating hydrogen atoms, composed of a single proton and a single electron. In many of these the proton and electron have become separated, resulting in free-floating charged particles called ions. All together, the atoms, ions, and free electrons form the "interstellar medium" through which radio signals must pass.
The Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico
where all SETI@home data is collected. The 300-meter (1,000-foot) radio telescope, the largest in the world, is currently threatened with closure for budgetary reasons. The Planetary Society is fighting to save the facility.
这就是我们收集 SETI@home 所需数据的地方。这个直径 300 米（1000 英尺）的世界上最大的射电望远镜正面临由于经费问题而关闭的危险。行星协会正在努力奋斗尝试保存这个设施。
Credit: NAIC – Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF
来源：NAIC – 阿雷西博天文台，隶属 NSF。
Now as long as traditional SETI@home searches for a narrow band signal, this is not a problem. Since the entire transmission is concentrated at one narrow frequency, all of it travels at the same speed and arrives on Earth at the same time as a single coherent signal. But Astropulse searches for broad-band transmissions that are spread across a 2.5 MHz band of the spectrum. We can think of such a transmission as a combination of many narrow band signals at adjacent frequencies, all broadcast simultaneously as a single broad-band signal. Because of the differing speeds at which the different frequencies travel, however, the high frequency portions of the signal will arrive on Earth before the lower frequency portions. This means that a broad band pulse that was strong and coherent when it set on its way will be smeared across a time-span of several milliseconds when it is received on Earth. No clear pulse will be evident, and the transmission would be easily lost within the background noise.
由于传统的 SETI@home 程序只搜寻一片窄频带当中的信号，所以上面所说的现象不是问题，因为整个信号的频率都聚集在一个很窄的范围里边，所以整个信号传播的速度是一致的，能够同时到达地球。但是 Astropulse 搜寻的是分布在一个长 2.5 MHz 的频率区间的宽频带信号。我们可以把这种信号想象成在很多很多个窄频带上同时的播报同一个信号的组合。但是由于不同频率的信号传播的速度稍有不同，比较高频的部分会比低频的部分早一点到达地球。这就意味着本来在出发的时候强烈而一致的宽频带信号在到达地球的过程中会逐渐地被拖成几毫秒的长度。我们不会看到清晰的脉冲，而整个传输的信号也很可能被淹没在背景噪声中。
The first task for Astropulse then is to reverse the smearing effect and reconstruct the original strong signal. To do this Astropulse the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, the same one used by the traditional SETI@home program. FFT divides the raw data into thin narrow-band slices, which it then recombines with other portions along a timeline. A slice containing the longest wavelength is combined with a slice of slightly shorter wavelength that was received just before it, and so on, step by step, until the shortest wavelength signal, which arrived earliest, is added in. If a strong pulse had been sent in the first place, then the combination of all these slices will reconstruct it and the signal will appear loud and clear.
Astropulse 的第一个任务就是通过逆转拖尾效应来重建原始的信号。为了完成这个任务，Astropulse 运用了与传统 SETI@home 一样的技术：快速傅立叶变换算法（FFT）。FFT 将原始数据分成很多窄频带的薄片，然后将很多这样的薄片按照时间顺序排在一起。对应波长最长的薄片会与结合在比它波长稍短而时间比它稍早的薄片后面，如此重复排列直到波长最短的到达时间最早的薄片。如果原本在这个时间点上有一个强烈的脉冲的话，整个薄片的组合就会重建出原来的强烈而又清晰的信号。
There is however a serious flaw in this method. In order to properly reconstruct a signal in this manner, we would have to know the exact time-lag between the highest frequency portion and the lowest frequency portion of the signal. If for example the actual time-lag on a signal is 4 milliseconds, but Astropulse combined a highest and lowest frequency bandwidth slices that were received only 1 millisecond apart, then no pulse will be registered.
但这种方法也有严重的缺陷。为了适当地用这种方法重建信号，我们必须精确地知道信号的最高频部分和最低频部分到达的时间差。比如说如果一个信号的实际到达时间差是 4 毫秒，但是 Astropulse 只把相隔 1 微秒的最高频部分和最低频部分结合起来看的话，这个信号就不能被检测到了。
The only way to reconstruct a broad-band signal is to add its narrow-band components together by taking into account the correct time-lag between them. This time-lag depends on the distance the signal has traveled through the interstellar medium: the longer the distance, the greater the time lag. Unfortunately we have no clue where an alien civilization might be located, and what distances its transmissions must cover before being received on Earth. Not knowing the distance, we don’t know the time-lag in the signals, and cannot reconstruct the aliens’ transmission.
Astropulse’s solution to this problem is to try out a whole range of different possible time-lags, one after the other. In each case Astropulse processes the entire work unit looking for a broad-band signal by combining narrow band signals at a particular time interval. The shortest time-lag that the program tries between the highest and lowest frequency slice is 0.4 milliseconds, and longest is ten times greater – 4 milliseconds. Between these two extremes, Astropulse processes each work unit nearly 15,000 times!
Astropulse 对于这个问题的解决方法就是一个接一个地尝试一个大范围内的时间差。对于每个时间差 Astropulse 都要重新处理整个工作包来把各种频率的窄频带信号按照一定的时间差组合起来，然后再在其中寻找可能的宽频带信号。最短的时间差是 0.4 毫秒，而最长的是它的 10 倍——4 毫秒。在这个范围中间，Astropulse 需要对每个工作包处理接近 15000 次！
III. How Long is a Short Signal?
Processing each chunk of data from beginning to end that many times requires a gargantuan amount of computing power, which would be unthinkable for most scientific projects. Only SETI@home, with its millions of volunteers around the world running the program on their home computers can conceive of analyzing each chunk of data with such depth and precision. But even this is not enough: after all this work it is still possible that we would miss the broad-band pulse the aliens sent our way if we did not know how long the original signal lasted.
要把所有数据从头到尾处理这么多次，我们需要极其大量的计算能力，这对于绝大多数科研项目来说都是不可想象的。只有在 SETI@home 这个联结了数百万在他们的计算机上运行分析程序的志愿者的平台上，我们才能以如此高的精度对所有数据进行如此深入的分析。但这还不够，我们仍然有可能对那些外星人发送的宽频带脉冲视而不见，因为我们不知道它们的长度。
For example, suppose the aliens sent a signal 10 microseconds long, but we were checking for signals only 1 microsecond long. In that case we would never add up all the parts of the signal at the same time, and would never see the clear spike that tells us that a pulse from outer space has been received. The reverse is also true: if we were looking for a relatively long signal, while the actual signal lasted only a fraction of that time, it is likely that the pulse would disappear into the background noise and never be detected. All of which is to say that in order to find a signal in the data that lasts a certain amount of time, we have to be looking for a signal that lasts that amount of time – or close to it.
举个例子，我们假设外星人发送了一个长度为 10 毫秒的信号，但是我们只检测那些长 1 毫秒的信号。这样的话我们就不能把信号的所有部分都结合起来，也就看不到外太空脉冲那明显的尖峰了。反过来的情况也差不多：如果我们只关注相对来说较长的信号，而真正收到的信号相对较短的话，这个信号就很有可能被淹没在背景噪声当中，永远不能被探测到了。上面说了这么多就是为了说明，如果我们希望找到一个持续一定时间的信号的话，我们在搜索的时候指定的时间就必须与之一致——或者至少比较接近。
Unfortunately, just as we don’t know where the aliens are and how far their signal must travel, so we have no way of knowing how long their signal would last. And so, once again, Astropulse tries a whole range of possibilities one after the other: beginning with the shortest pulse of 0.4 microseconds, it tests for 9 additional lengths of time, each one double the previous length (that is 0.4 microseconds, 0.8 microseconds, 1.6 microseconds, 3.2 microseconds, etc.). Astropulse tests all ten of these possibilities each and every time it processes the entire set of data to account for a different possible time-lag.
很不走运的是，正如我们不知道外星人在哪里他们的信号需要传多远，我们也不知道他们的信号会持续多长时间。这样的话，Astropulse 就只能故技重施，一个一个尝试可能的持续时间：从最短的 0.4 毫秒开始，然后一共检测 10 种可能的持续时间，每个持续时间依次是前一个的两倍（0.4 毫秒，0.8 毫秒，1.6 毫秒，如此类推）。对于每一种可能的持续时间，Astropulse 都要重新处理对应每个时间差的数据。
To recap: Astropulse processes the entire set of data nearly 15,000 times, each time assuming a different time-lag between the highest and lowest frequency portion of the signal. Each and every time the program completes one of these 15,000 cycles it goes over the processed data ten times looking for signals of different lengths. The amount of computer time involved would indeed be unimaginable for any project other than SETI@home.
总结一下：Astropulse 要对整段数据重复进行大概 15000 次的处理，在每一次处理中都有一个不同的时间差作为参数。在每一次处理后它还需要将处理后的数据对应不同的持续时间检查 10 次。对于其它项目来说这项工作需要的计算能力的确是不可想象的。
IV. On Aliens and Black Holes
As an integral part of SETI@home, Astropulse is first and foremost a search for an intelligent transmission from outer space. Nevertheless, as the SETI@home researchers are quick to admit, there is really no telling what Astropulse will actually find. After all, nothing resembling such a systematic all-sky search for a broad-band signal from space has ever been attempted before, so scientists really don’t know what’s out there. Will Astropulse finally detect an elusive signal from an alien civilization? Or will it, perhaps, discover a natural source of broad-band radio pulses?
作为 SETI@home 的一部分，Astropulse 首先主要是作为对于外太空的智慧生命通讯的一项搜索工作。然而 SETI@home 的研究人员也很快承认他们也说不准 Astropulse 会发现些什么，毕竟在以往并没有出现过这样系统的对于宽频带信号的全天搜索，所以科学家们当然完全不知道会发现些什么。Astropulse 发现的会是从外星文明来的一缕难以捕捉的信号，还是一个天然的宽频带信号源？
Dan Werthimer and his group have thought carefully about this issue, and came up with several possible natural sources for Astropulse signals. One possibility is pulsars – rotating neutron stars that emit strong radio transmissions. Known pulsars rarely produce signals shorter than 100 microseconds, but it is possible that Astropulse will discover a new class of pulsars with much shorter transmission times.
Dan Werthimer 和他的团队慎重地思考了这个问题，而且也举出了几个 Astropulse 可能探测到的信号的可能天然来源。一种可能就是脉冲星——不停发出强大电磁波的旋转中子星。已知的脉冲星很少发出短于 100 毫秒的信号，不过 Astropulse 也有可能发现一类新的能发出短得多的信号的脉冲星。
A more exotic possibility is that Astropulse would register the "dying gasps" of exploding black holes. Astrophysicist Martin Rees has theorized that black holes that explode through Hawking radiation would produce a strong but brief burst in radio frequencies, and this could potentially be detected by Astropulse. And then of course there is the possibility that Astropulse will discover something new entirely, that we cannot imagine beforehand. This, after all, might be the likeliest outcome.
更诡异的一种可能是 Astropulse 可能会探测到晚年黑洞爆炸时的“垂死挣扎”。天体物理学家 Martin Rees 建立了一个理论，在这个理论当中通过霍金辐射爆炸的黑洞会在所有电磁波段同时产生一次强大而又短促的爆发，这种爆发有可能被 Astropulse 探测到。当然，Astropulse 也有可能探测到与上面所说的完全不同的东西，在探测到之前谁也说不准那会是什么，但是上面所说的估计就是最有可能的了。
The Arecibo Multi-Beam Receiver Installed
The multi-beam receiver installed in its place inside the Gregorian dome. Credit: Courtesy of the NAIC – Arecibo Observatory, an NSF facility.
安装在 Gregorian 穹顶的多波束接收器。图片蒙阿雷西博天文台惠赠。
Like all SETI@home data, Astropulse data is collected at Arecibo during sky surveys conducted by the ALFA consortium (Arecibo L-band Feed Array), using the radio telescope’s multi-beam receiver. The data is recorded and then packaged into work units of 8 MegaBytes each, which are sent out to users all over the world for processing. Since the the Astropulse software downloads automatically onto volunteers’ computers, users don’t have to take any action in order to join the broad-band search.
和所有 SETI@home 的数据一样，Astropulse 的数据是由在阿雷西博 L 波段传送阵列上的多波束接收器所接收的。这些数据会被记录下来，然后划分成每个 8M 的工作包来发送到世界各地的志愿者进行计算。由于 Astropulse 的程序会在志愿者的计算机上自动下载数据，所以志愿者在整个宽频带搜索过程中无需操心。
The first Astropulse work units went out in early August, and overall users will not see a significant change in the way SETI@home operates on their computers. At 8 MegaBytes Astropulse work units are larger than traditional SETI@home units, and as we have seen they undergo particularly intensive analysis. As a result users will notice that they take longer to process on their computers. Meanwhile traditional SETI@home work units will continue to go out alongside Astropulse units, and they will continue to be processed on users’ computers just as they had before.
第一个 Astropulse 的工作包在 2008 年 8 月送出，总体上用户不会察觉到 SETI@home 在他们计算机上的运行方式有什么显著的改变。8M 的 Astropulse 工作包的确比传统的 SETI@home 工作包要大，而且它们需要进行更大量的分析。这样导致的结果就是用户可能会注意到这些工作包需要更长的时间来进行处理。与此同时传统的 SETI@home 工作包也会与 Astropulse 的工作包一起被发放，像以前那样在用户的机器上运行。
Astropulse is now off and running in search of brief broad-band radio signals coming from space. What will it find? Will it be the long sought signal from an alien civilization? Will it detect new pulsars, black holes, or perhaps some novel natural phenomenon of which we have no inkling? We don’t yet know. But like Galileo who four centuries ago turned a telescope upon the night sky, Astropulse is looking at the heavens in a new and unprecedented way. Who knows what wonders it will reveal.
现在 Astropulse 已经在开始搜索外太空来的短促的宽频带无线电信号了。它会发现些什么呢？会不会是我们探寻已久的外星文明信号呢？还是新的脉冲星、黑洞或者甚至是我们一点概念也没有的新奇自然现象呢？我们还不知道。不过就像四个世纪前伽利略将他的望远镜指向夜空那样，现在 Astropulse 正在以一种前所未有的新方式窥视太空。谁又知道它会发现什么叹为观止的事物呢？